A computational fluid dynamic analysis of the effect of weld nozzle geometry changes on shielding gas coverage during gas metal arc welding

Stuart Campbell, Alexander Galloway, Gemma Ramsey, Norman McPherson

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Three geometry changes to the inner bore of a welding nozzle and their effects on weld quality during gas metal arc welding (GMAW) were investigated through
the use of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models and experimental trials. It
was shown that an increased shielding gas exit velocity increased the gas
column’s stability and therefore its resistance to side draughts. Double helix
geometry within the nozzle reduced the gas column’s stability by generating a
fast moving wall of gas around a slow moving centre. A pierced internal plate
initially increased the gas velocity, however, the nozzle was unable to maintain
the velocity and the change produced gas columns of similar stability to a
standard nozzle. A pierced end plate produced the best results, increasing the
shielding gases exit velocity sufficiently to marginally outperform the standard
16 mm welding nozzle.
Original languageEnglish
Article number051016
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering
Issue number5
Early online date2 Sep 2013
Publication statusPublished - 16 Sep 2013


  • CFD
  • GMAW
  • shielding gas coverage
  • nozzle geometry
  • side draughts

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