An applied ecological framework for evaluating infrastructure to promote walking and cycling: the iConnect study

David Ogilvie, Fiona Bull, Jane Powell, Ashley R Cooper, Christian Brand, Nanette Mutrie, John Preston, Harry Rutter, iConnect Consortium

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

75 Citations (Scopus)


Improving infrastructure for walking and cycling is increasingly recommended as a means to promote physical activity, prevent obesity, and reduce traffic congestion and carbon emissions. However, limited evidence from intervention studies exists to support this approach. Drawing on classic epidemiological methods, psychological and ecological models of behavior change, and the principles of realistic evaluation, we have developed an applied ecological framework by which current theories about the behavioral effects of environmental change may be tested in heterogeneous and complex intervention settings. Our framework guides study design and analysis by specifying the most important data to be collected and relations to be tested to confirm or refute specific hypotheses and thereby refine the underlying theories.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)473-481
Number of pages9
JournalAmerican Journal of Public Health
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2011


  • bicycling
  • city planning
  • environment design
  • Great Britain
  • health behavior
  • health promotion
  • humans
  • theoretical models
  • residence characteristics
  • social environment
  • transportation
  • walking

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