Cross-disciplinary activity among the fields of biology, chemistry and electronics has steadily gained momentum in recent years, and defined areas for cooperative research and development are emerging. At the technology level, this has led to the possibility of adapting techniques developed for micro- or nanofabrication of integrated circuits for the manipulation of molecules on surfaces. There are wideranging applications for these methods in many areas; this article describes some of them and speculates on possible future developments.
- scanning tunneling microscope
- polypyrrole films
- cell behavior