Nanoparticles are small particles sized 1–100 nm, which have a large surface-to-volume ratio, allowing efficient adsorption of drugs, proteins, and other chemical compounds. Consequently, functionalized nanoparticles have potential diagnostic and therapeutic applications. A variety of nanoparticles have been studied, including those constructed from inorganic materials, biopolymers, and lipids. In this review, we focus on recent work targeting the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 virus that causes coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Understanding the interactions between coronavirus-specific proteins (such as the spike protein and its host cell receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) with different nanoparticles paves the way to the development of new therapeutics and diagnostics that are urgently needed for the fight against COVID-19, and indeed for related future viral threats that may emerge.