Chemical enhancement of footwear impressions in blood on fabric - Part 2: Peroxidase reagents

Kevin J. Farrugia, Kathleen A. Savage, Helen Bandey, Tomasz Ciuksza, Niamh Nic Daeid

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)


This study investigates the optimisation of peroxidase based enhancement techniques for footwear impressions made in blood on various fabric surfaces. Four different haem reagents: leuco crystal violet (LCV), leuco malachite green (LMG), fluorescein and luminol were used to enhance the blood contaminated impressions.
The enhancement techniques in this study were used successfully to enhance the impressions in blood on light coloured surfaces, however, only fluorescent and/or chemiluminescent techniques allowed visualisation on dark coloured fabrics, denim and leather. Luminol was the only technique to enhance footwear impressions made in blood on all the fabrics investigated in this study. 

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)110-121
Number of pages12
JournalScience and Justice
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2011


  • footwear impressions
  • Blood
  • Fabric
  • peroxidase reagents
  • forensic luminol test
  • dna analysis
  • presumptive tests
  • bloodstains
  • luminescence
  • chemiluminescence

Cite this