Development of immunosensors for direct detection of three wound infection biomarkers at point of care using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

I. Ciani, H. Schulze, D.K. Corrigan, G. Henihan, G. Giraud, J.G. Terry, A.J. Walton, R. Pethig, P. Ghazal, J. Crain, C.J. Campbell, T.T. Bachmann, A.R. Mount

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69 Citations (Scopus)


A method for label-free, electrochemical impedance immunosensing for the detection and quantification of three infection biomarkers in both buffer and directly in the defined model matrix of mock wound fluid is demonstrated. Triggering Receptor-1 Expressed on Myeloid cells (TREM-1) and Matrix MetalloPeptidase 9 (MMP-9) are detected via direct assay and N-3-oxo-dodecanoyl-l-HomoSerineLactone (HSL), relevant in bacterial quorum sensing, is detected using a competition assay. Detection is performed with gold screen-printed electrodes modified with a specific thiolated antibody. Detection is achieved in less than 1 h straight from mock wound fluid without any extensive sample preparation steps. The limits of detection of 3.3 pM for TREM-1, 1.1 nM for MMP-9 and 1.4 nM for HSL are either near or below the threshold required to indicate infection. A relatively large dynamic range for sensor response is also found, consistent with interaction between neighbouring antibody–antigen complexes in the close-packed surface layer. Together, these three novel electrochemical immunosensors demonstrate viable multi-parameter sensing with the required sensitivity for rapid wound infection detection directly from a clinically relevant specimen.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)413-418
Number of pages6
JournalBiosensors and Bioelectronics
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 15 Jan 2012


  • impedimetric biosensor
  • multiparameter
  • label free detection
  • chronic wound infection
  • immunosensor

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