Do information and communication technologies further or hinder gross national happiness?

Kezang Kezang, J.L. Whalley, D. Karma (Editor), D. Penjore (Editor)

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


This paper focuses on the relationship between information and communication technologies and Gross National Happiness, the philosophy that has guided development within Bhutan. Whilst a series of challenges are identified, the focus is on that between availability and affordability of the technologies and the need to ensure that access is equitable. It is argued that the gap between the 'haves' and 'have nots' can be reduced but entirely overcome.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationGross National Happiness: Practice and Measurement: the proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Gross National Happiness, 24-26 November 2008
Place of PublicationThimphu, Bhutan
Number of pages22
Publication statusPublished - 2009


  • Bhutan
  • gross national happiness
  • GNH
  • information and communication technologies
  • ICT

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