Does stand-by time count as working time? The Court of Justice gives guidance in DJ v Radiotelevizija Slovenija and RJ v Stadt Offenbach am Main

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On 9 March 2021, the Grand Chamber of the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) added two judgments to a long line of case law interpreting the meaning of "working time" under art. 2 of Directive 2003/88/EC (the"“Working Time Directive"). Art. 2 defines "working time" as any period during which the worker is working, at the employer's disposal and carrying out his activity or duties. The opposite to working time is a "rest period", defined in art. 2 as any period which is not working time. The two are mutually exclusive. There is a plethora of case law examining the scope of "working time", particularly in the context of on-call work.[1] The CJEU has generally adopted a progressive approach to the Directive, widening its scope through a broad interpretation of what counts as "working time", and bestowing the rights contained within the Directive with a fundamental character.[2] In DJ v Radiotelevizija Slovenija[3] and RJ v Stadt Offenbach am Main[4] the CJEU was asked to consider whether and how stand-by time spent at home falls within the scope of art. 2.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)121-124
Number of pages4
JournalEuropean Papers
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 22 Apr 2021


  • working time
  • stand by time
  • working hours

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