Efficient invariant-manifold, low-thrust planar trajectories to the Moon

Giorgio Mingotti, Francesco Topputo, Franco Bernelli-Zazzara

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62 Citations (Scopus)


Two-impulse trajectories as well as mixed invariant-manifold, low-thrust efficient transfers to the Moon are discussed. Exterior trajectories executing ballistic lunar capture are formalized through the definition of special attainable sets. The coupled restricted three-body problems approximation is used to design appropriate first guesses for the subsequent optimization. The introduction of the Moon-perturbed Sun–Earth restricted four-body problem allows us to formalize the idea of ballistic escape from the Earth, and
to take explicitly advantage of lunar fly-by. Accurate first guess solutions are optimized, through a direct method approach and multiple shooting technique.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)817-831
JournalCommunications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2012


  • nonlinear astrodynamics
  • n-body problem
  • loe-energy trajectories
  • dynamical system theory
  • low-thrust propulsion
  • optimal control theory

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