End-to-end versus hop-by-hop state refresh in soft state signaling protocols

J.H. He, X.M. Fu, Z. Tang, Hsiao-Hwa Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


The concept of soft state (i.e., the state that will expire unless been refreshed) has been widely used in the design of network signaling protocols. The approaches of refreshing state in multi-hop networks can be classified to end-to-end (E2E) and hop-by-hop (RbH) refreshes. In this article we propose an effective Markov chain based analytical model for both E2E and HbH refresh approaches. Simulations verify the analytical models, which can be used to study the impacts of link characteristics on the performance (e.g., state synchronization and message overhead), as a guide on configuration and optimization of soft state signaling protocols.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)268-270
Number of pages2
JournalIEEE Communications Letters
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2009


  • Signaling protocol
  • soft state
  • Markov chain

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