GATT Article XX(a) permits otherwise trade-restrictive animal welfare measures

Iyan Offor, Jan Walter

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


There is ample support in the literature (primarily recent academic commentary) for the proposition that trade restrictions aimed at protecting animal welfare can be justified under Article XX(a) of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) 1994 and thus are complimentary to and compliant with the World Trade Organisation’s (WTO) free trade agenda, particularly in light of the EC – Seal Products case and the way it has affected interpretations of GATT Article XX(a).
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)158-166
Number of pages9
JournalGlobal Trade and Customs Journal
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 30 Apr 2017


  • GATT Article XX(a)
  • animal welfare
  • general agreement on tariffs and trade

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