Grid forming converters in renewable energy sources dominated power grid: control strategy, stability, application, and challenges

Haobo Zhang, Wang Xiang, Weixing Lin, Jinyu Wen

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The renewable energy sources (RESs) dominated power grid is an envisaged infrastructure of the future power system, where the commonly used grid following (GFL) control for grid-tied converters suffers from lacking grid support capability, low stability, etc. Recently, emerging grid forming (GFM) control methods have been proposed to improve the dynamic performance and stability of grid-tied converters. This paper reviews existing GFM control methods for the grid-tied converters and compares them in terms of control structure, grid support capability, fault current limiting, and stability. Considering the impact of fault current limiting strategies, a comprehensive transient stability analysis is provided. In addition, this paper explores the typical applications of GFM converters, such as AC microgrid and offshore wind farm high-voltage direct current (OWF-HVDC) integration systems. Finally, the challenges to the GFM converters in future applications are discussed.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1239-1256
Number of pages18
JournalJournal of Modern Power Systems and Clean Energy
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 26 Nov 2021


  • grid following (GFL) control
  • grid forming (GFM) control
  • high-voltage direct current (HVDC)
  • microgrid
  • renewable energy
  • small-signal stability
  • transient stability

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