In situ characterization of work hardening and springback in grade 2 α-titanium under tensile load

K. Sofinowski, M. Šmíd, S. Van Petegem, S. Rahimi, T. Connolley, H. Van Swygenhoven

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Plastic effects during sheet metal forming can lead to undesirable distortions in formed components. Here, the three-stage work hardening and plastic strain recovery ("springback") in a cold-rolled, α-phase commercially pure titanium is examined. Interrupted standard tensile tests with in situ x-ray diffraction and quasi-in situ electron backscatter diffraction show that twinning plays a minor role in both of these phenomena. The experiments give evidence that the observed work hardening plateau is the result of an abrupt activation and multiplication of 〈c+a〉 slip and a subsequent redistribution of load between grain families. The springback can be attributed to inelastic backwards motion and annihilation of dislocations, driven by backstresses from dislocation-based hardening during loading. The peak broadening behavior, observed by x-ray diffraction, suggests that the internal stress state is highest in the rolling direction, resulting in consistently higher springback magnitude along this direction.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)87-98
Number of pages12
JournalActa Materialia
Early online date24 Sep 2019
Publication statusPublished - 31 Dec 2019


  • springback
  • work hardening plateau
  • in situ X-ray diriffraction
  • EBSD

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