Micro-Indentation based study on steel sheet degradation through forming and flattening: toward a predictive model to assess cold recyclability

Javad Falsafi, Emrah Demirci

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Sheet metal forming has always been an important sector of the metal industry thanks to work hardening, however complex set of deformation entails evolution of damage in the material through the forming stages. With an outlook to cold recycling of sheet metals, this paper focuses on experimental quantification of damage and degradation in load carrying capacity due to forming process. Assuming that cold recycling of sheet metals involves an intermediate flattening prior to secondary forming process, the adverse effects of flattening on material was also investigated. An industrial cold roll forming process was taken as case study. Experimental investigation using microhardness mapping on the cross-section of fold zones, in conjunction with 3D global-local FE modelling were the basis of through-thickness damage analysis. Taking advantage of strain-hardness correlation a new method was established to extrapolate hardness for ductile damage characterization. Investigation on sensitivity of the measured microhardness to crystallographic texture and sample surface preparation backed the experimental results. The results particularly outlined the progressive decrease in load carrying capacity of material after forming and after flattening. The possibility of a secondary manufacturing process is discussed.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)456-465
Number of pages10
JournalMaterials and Design
Early online date16 Jul 2016
Publication statusPublished - 5 Nov 2016


  • cold recycling
  • microhardness mapping
  • damage
  • submodelling
  • cold roll forming
  • FEA

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