Militarism, drill and elementary education: Birmingham nonconformist responses to conformist responses to the teutonic threat prior to the great war

J. A. Mangan, F. Galligan

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    7 Citations (Scopus)


    Birmingham nonconformists, significant in number if not in class status, were responsible for making the city a pioneer in physical training in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. They resisted, eventually successfully, military control of drill despite increasing national anxiety over the growing economic and military power of Germany and the associated perceived threat of war between ‘Anglo-Saxon' and ‘Teuton'. The city has a vision: physical training for all as a means of ensuring good health for all rather than simply for natural survival. It was a laudable, neorenaissance, humanistic approach in modern, capitalist, industrial commercial circumstances.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)568-603
    Number of pages36
    JournalInternational Journal of the History of Sport
    Issue number3-4
    Early online date9 Mar 2011
    Publication statusPublished - 2011


    • ideological combat
    • pioneering female physical education
    • physical training
    • syllabuses
    • Birmingham nonconformity
    • athleticism
    • dissent
    • physical fitness
    • dissenters
    • militarism

    Cite this