this paper extends a recently proposed dc auto-transformer to a true multi-port converter that can function simultaneously as dc auto-transformer and a dc/ac converter for dc voltage matching and tapping, and power control in highly meshed multi-terminal dc grids. The presented multi-port converter can generate multiple adjustable dc voltages from a fixed or variable input dc voltage, or from an active ac grid. Theoretical discussions and simulations indicate that when the proposed multi-port converter is used as a hybrid dc and ac hub to manage congestions and resolve loop flow issues in a highly meshed multi-terminal dc network, large dc power can be fed to the lower dc terminal, without exposing the switching devices of the lower sub-converter to excessive current stress. Its increased control flexibility and response to dc faults at high and low dc terminals are validated using simulations and experiments.
- modular multilevel converter
- multi-terminal dc grids
- multi-port converter
- high-voltage direct current transmission systems