Multiphysics models for friction stir welding simulation

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Purpose: The Friction Stir Welding (FSW) process comprises of several highly coupled (and non-linear) physical phenomena: large plastic deformation, material flow transportation, mechanical stirring of the tool, tool-workpiece surface interaction, dynamic structural evolution, heat generation from friction and plastic deformation, etc. In this paper, an advanced Finite Element (FE) model encapsulating this complex behavior is presented and various aspects
associated with the FE model such as contact modeling, material model and meshing techniques are discussed in detail.
Methodology: The numerical model is continuum solid mechanics-based, fully thermomechanically coupled and has successfully simulated the friction stir welding process including plunging, dwelling and welding stages.
Findings: The development of several field variables are quantified by the model: temperature, stress, strain, etc. Material movement is visualized by defining tracer particles at the locations of interest. The numerically computed material flow patterns are in very good agreement with the general findings from experiments.
Value: The model is, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, the most advanced simulation of FSW published in the literature.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)19-30
JournalInternational Journal of CFD Case Studies
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2013


  • multiphysics
  • modelling and simulation
  • friction stir welding

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