New proof-of-concept in viral inactivation: virucidal efficacy of 405 nm light against feline calicivirus as a model for norovirus decontamination

Rachael M. Tomb, Michelle Maclean, John E. Coia, Elizabeth Graham, Michael McDonald, Chintamani D. Atreya, Scott J. MacGregor, John G. Anderson

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The requirement for novel decontamination technologies for use in hospitals is ever present. One such system uses 405 nm visible light to inactivate microorganisms via ROS generated oxidative damage. Although effective for bacterial and fungal inactivation, little is known about the virucidal effects of 405 nm light. Norovirus (NoV) gastroenteritis outbreaks often occur in the clinical setting and this study was designed to investigate potential inactivation effects of 405 nm light on the NoV surrogate, feline calicivirus (FCV). FCV was exposed to 405 nm light whilst suspended in minimal and organically rich media to establish the virucidal efficacy and the effect biologically-relevant material may play in viral susceptibility. Antiviral activity was successfully demonstrated with a 4 Log10 (99.99%) reduction in infectivity when suspended in minimal media evident after a dose of 2.8 kJ cm-2. FCV exposed in artificial faeces, artificial saliva, blood plasma and other organically-rich media exhibited an equivalent level of inactivation using between 50-85% less dose of the light, indicating enhanced inactivation when the virus is present in organically-rich biologically-relevant media. Further research in this area could aid in the development of 405 nm light technology for effective NoV decontamination within the hospital environment.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)159-167
Number of pages9
JournalFood and Environmental Virology
Issue number2
Early online date31 Dec 2016
Publication statusPublished - 30 Jun 2017


  • 405 nm Light
  • viral inactivation
  • Feline Calicivirus
  • saliva
  • plasma
  • antimicrobial efficacy
  • light-induced inactivation
  • photosensitization
  • norovirus

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