Practical added resistance diagrams to predict fouling impact on ship performance

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The main aim of this paper is to generate practical added resistance diagrams to be used for the prediction of the increases in the frictional resistance coefficients and effective powers of ships due to the use of a range of coating and biofouling conditions. For this reason, an in-house code was developed based on the boundary layer similarity law analysis. Roughness effects of a range of representative coating and fouling conditions on the frictional resistances of flat plates across a large number of ship lengths were then predicted. Hence, an extensive database of added frictional resistance coefficients was evaluated for varying ship lengths, ship speeds and fouling conditions. The added resistance diagrams were then presented from 10 m to 400 m ship lengths and from slow to high ship speeds for each surface condition. Added resistances and powering penalties of different types of ships including DTMB 5415, KCS, JBC and KVLCC2 were predicted using the generated diagrams.

Original languageEnglish
Article number106112
Number of pages21
JournalOcean Engineering
Early online date26 Jun 2019
Publication statusPublished - 15 Aug 2019


  • hull roughness and biofouling
  • added resistance diagrams
  • ship resistance and powering


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