Progress on the national action plan of Pakistan on antimicrobial resistance (AMR): a narrative review and the implications

Zikria Saleem, Brian Godman, Faiza Azhar, Aubrey C. Kalungia, Joseph Fadare, Sylvia Opanga, Vanda Markovic-Pekovic, Iris Hoxha, Amna Saeed, Manal Al-Gethamy, Abdul Haseeb, Muhammad Salman, Ayaz Ali Khan, Muhammad Umer Nadeem, Inaam Ur Rehman, Muhammad Usman Qamar, Afreenish Amir, Aamer Ikram, Mohamed Azmi Hassali

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Introduction: The emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a threat to public health. In 2015, the World Health Organization (WHO) introduced a global action plan to tackle AMR in World Health Assembly. Pakistan’s national action plan (NAP) for AMR was released in May 2017 by the Ministry of National Health Services. Based on the NAP, strategies have been initiated on a national and provincial scale in Pakistan.
Methodology: A narrative review of the five components of the Pakistan NAP has been taken based on the publications known to the co-authors. The suggestions have been made on the basis of that to reduce the burden of the AMR. Areas Covered: This review discusses some of the challenges in implementation of the NAP for AMR including different opinions and views of key stakeholders, concerns with lack of diagnostic facilities and financial resources and continued wide and suboptimal use of antimicrobials in human and animal health as well as food production.
Expert Opinion: Going forward, healthcare authorities should focus on screening and monitoring of all the objectives of the NAP by establishing proper policies as well as promoting antimicrobial stewardship interventions and Infection prevention and control (IPC) practices. Overall, the comprehensive strengthening of the healthcare system is required to adequately implement the NAP, tackle continued inappropriate antimicrobial use and high AMR rates in Pakistan.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages40
JournalExpert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Early online date26 May 2021
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 26 May 2021

Keywords

  • antimicrobial resistance
  • AMR
  • antimicrobial utilisation
  • AMU
  • antimicrobial surveillance

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