Methodology: A narrative review of the five components of the Pakistan NAP has been taken based on the publications known to the co-authors. The suggestions have been made on the basis of that to reduce the burden of the AMR. Areas Covered: This review discusses some of the challenges in implementation of the NAP for AMR including different opinions and views of key stakeholders, concerns with lack of diagnostic facilities and financial resources and continued wide and suboptimal use of antimicrobials in human and animal health as well as food production.
Expert Opinion: Going forward, healthcare authorities should focus on screening and monitoring of all the objectives of the NAP by establishing proper policies as well as promoting antimicrobial stewardship interventions and Infection prevention and control (IPC) practices. Overall, the comprehensive strengthening of the healthcare system is required to adequately implement the NAP, tackle continued inappropriate antimicrobial use and high AMR rates in Pakistan.
- antimicrobial resistance
- antimicrobial utilisation
- antimicrobial surveillance