Reference frames for Bell inequality violation in the presence of superselection rules

T Paterek, P Kurzyński, D K L Oi, D Kaszlikowski

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Superselection rules (SSRs) constrain the allowed states and operations in quantum theory. They limit preparations and measurements and hence impact our ability to observe non-locality, in particular the violation of Bell inequalities. We show that a reference frame compatible with a particle number SSR does not allow observers to violate a Bell inequality if and only if it is prepared using only local operations and classical communication. In particular, jointly prepared separable reference frames are sufficient for obtaining violations of a Bell inequality. We study the size and non-local properties of such reference frames using superselection-induced variance. These results suggest the need for experimental Bell tests in the presence of superselection.

Original languageEnglish
Article number043027
Number of pages12
JournalNew Journal of Physics
Publication statusPublished - 19 Apr 2011


  • single photon
  • nonlocality
  • quantum
  • entanglement
  • separability

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