Singular spectral analysis (SSA) has recently been successfully applied to feature extraction in hyperspectral image (HSI), including conventional (1-D) SSA in spectral domain and 2-D SSA in spatial domain. However, there are some drawbacks, such as sensitivity to the window size, high computational complexity under a large window, and failing to extract joint spectral-spatial features. To tackle these issues, in this article, we propose superpixelwise adaptive SSA (SpaSSA), that is superpixelwise adaptive SSA for exploiting local spatial information of HSI. The extraction of local (instead of global) features, particularly in HSI, can be more effective for characterizing the objects within an image. In SpaSSA, conventional SSA and 2-D SSA are combined and adaptively applied to each superpixel derived from an oversegmented HSI. According to the size of the derived superpixels, either SSA or 2-D singular spectrum analysis (2D-SSA) is adaptively applied for feature extraction, where the embedding window in 2D-SSA is also adaptive to the size of the superpixel. Experimental results on the three datasets have shown that the proposed SpaSSA outperforms both SSA and 2D-SSA in terms of classification accuracy and computational complexity. By combining SpaSSA with the principal component analysis (SpaSSA-PCA), the accuracy of land-cover analysis can be further improved, outperforming several state-of-the-art approaches.
- hyperspectral image (HSI)
- feature extraction
- remote sensing
- land cover analysis
- singular spectrum analysis (SSA)
- superpixel adaptive SSA (SpaSSA)