In this paper new expressions for the Spatial Fading Correlation (SFC) functions of Antenna Arrays (AA) in a 3-dimensional (3D) multipath channel are derived. In particular the Uniform Circular Array (UCA) antenna topology is considered. The derivation of the novel SFC function uses a Probability Density Function (PDF) originating from the field of directional statistics, the Von Mises Fisher (VMF) PDF. In particular the novel SFC function is based on the concept of mixture modeling and hence uses a mixture of VMF distributions. Since the SFC function is dependent on the Angle of Arrival (AoA) as well as the power of each cluster, the more appropriate power azimuth colatitude spectrum term has been used. The choice of distribution is validated with the use of Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) experimental data that was obtained in an outdoor drive test campaign in Germany. A mixture can be composed of any number of clusters and this is mainly dependent on the clutter type encountered in the propagation environment. The parameters of the individual clusters within the mixture are derived and an estimation of those parameters is achieved using the soft-Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm. The results indicate that the proposed model fits well with the MIMO data.
- spatial fading correlation function
- antenna arrays
- uniform circular array
- Von Mises Fisher distribution
- mixture of distributions