The use of a smartwatch as a prompting device for people with acquired brain injury: a single case experimental design study

Matthew Jamieson, Mattia Monastra, Graeme Gillies, Rumen Manolov, Breda Cullen, Marilyn Lennon, Stephen Brewster, Jonathan J. Evans

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Prompting-based memory compensation is a potential application for smartwatches. This study investigated the usability and efficacy of a Moto360 smartwatch as a memory aid. Four community dwelling adults with memory difficulties following acquired brain injury (ABI) were included in an A-B-A single case experimental design study. Performance of everyday memory tasks was tested over six weeks with the smartwatch and software provided during weeks three and four. Participants were asked to use their usual memory aids and strategies during the control phases (weeks 1–2, 5–6). Three participants successfully used the smartwatch throughout the intervention weeks and gave positive usability ratings. A fourth participant experienced a seizure and subsequently left the study before the intervention phase. Three participants showed improved memory performance when using the smartwatch. Nonoverlap of all pairs (NAP) analysis showed a non-significant small increase in memory performance between baseline and intervention phases (mean NAP = 0.1, p = .84). There was a larger, significant decline between the intervention and return to baseline (mean NAP = 0.58, p < .01). The use of an off-the-shelf smartwatch device and software was feasible for people with ABI in the community. It was effective compared to practice as usual, although this was only apparent on withdrawal of the device.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages21
JournalNeuropsychological Rehabilitation
Early online date20 Apr 2017
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 20 Apr 2017


  • assistive technology
  • acquired brain injury
  • memory rehabilitation
  • prospective memory
  • smartwatch

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