Towards a universal model of internet banking adoption: initial conceptualization

Tina Suzanne Harrison, Okey Peter Onyia, Stephen K. Tagg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)


Designing this study, we postulated that customer readiness and web-channel readiness are the twin universal antecedents of Internet banking (IB) adoption. We delineate readiness as the state of preparedness, ability, and willingness to engage in Internet banking, and argue that both the potential customer and financial institution’s web-channel must be equally ready before IB-adoption can occur. Our model was tested in the context of IB-adoption in Scotland. 26 intervening customer and web-channel variables isolated from existing literature were tested to identify potential universal determinants of retail-customer adoption of Internet banking. A sample of 1000 customers was surveyed. ANOVA, multiple regression and logistic regression analyses were used in testing the associations of the variables with respondents’ attitudes and intentions toward IB adoption. All 26 variables showed some influence, but only 6 of them (3 customer-related and 3 web-channel-related variables) were significant in determining the respondents’ intention and willingness to adopt IB. Our results present some marketing-communications implications for bank-marketing. IB marketers must ensure that the 6 significant antecedents validated in this study are established and sustained in order to convince potential customers to adopt and continue using Internet banking. We also make a valuable contribution to the theoretical discourse on global IB adoption. Our results have yielded an equal-evaluation model of potential universal antecedents of IB adoption, the EQUAEVAL model, which can be further-tested in future cross-national research contexts.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)647-687
Number of pages41
JournalInternational Journal of Bank Marketing
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2014


  • internet banking adoption
  • financial institution
  • banking customers

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