This thesis describes the implementation of an optically pumped caesium magnetometer containing a 1:5mm thick microfabricated vapour cell with nitrogen buffer gas, operating in a free-induction-decay configuration. This allows us to monitor the free Larmor precession of the spin coherent Cs atoms by separating the pump and probe phases in the time domain. A single light pulse can sufficiently polarise the atomic sample;however, synchronous modulation of the light field actively drives the precession and maximises the induced spin coherence. Both amplitude- and frequency-modulation have been adopted producing noise floors of 3.4 pT / √Hz and 15.6 pT/√Hz, respectively,within a Nyquist limited bandwidth of 500 Hz in a bias field comparable to the Earth's (~50 μT). We investigate the magnetometers capability in reproducing time-varying magnetic signals under these conditions, including the reconstruction of a 100 pT perturbation using signal averaging.Additionally, we discuss a novel detection mode based on free-induction-decay that observes the spin precession dynamics in-the-dark using Ramsey-like pulses. This aids in suppressing the systematic effects originating from the light-atom interaction during readout, thus vastly improving the accuracy of the magnetometer whilst maintaining a sensitivity that is competitive with previous implementations. This detection technique was implemented further to measure the spin relaxation properties intrinsic to the sensor head, useful in determining the optimal buffer pressure that extends the spin lifetime and improves the sensor's sensitivity performance.
|Date of Award||10 May 2019|
- University Of Strathclyde
|Sponsors||University of Strathclyde|
|Supervisor||Erling Riis (Supervisor) & Paul Griffin (Supervisor)|