In north-eastern Thailand, there are many varieties of mushrooms that the local people consume in high quantities annually; some of which are used for medicinal purposes. The local people use them for treatment by boiling with water and drinking the liquor, while some people finely grate the mushrooms, mould them into a bolusand eat it like a tablet as an anti-cancer and anti-diabetic treatment. In the present study, the compounds from three mushrooms P. everhartii, P. laevigatus and F.cajanderi were extracted with ethanol and biological evaluation such as anti-cancer, anti-Alzheimers, anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory activity carried out. An ethanol crude extract of F. cajanderi showed cytotoxicity against ovarian carcinoma (A2780), prostate carcinoma (LNCap) and breast carcinoma (ZR75-1)with IC50 of 149.70 µg/ml, 125.60 µg/ml and more than 150 µg/ml, respectively. While EtOH crude extracts of P. everhartii and P. laevigatus showed cytotoxicity against LNCap at IC50 80.46 µg/ml and 125.90 µg/ml, respectively and againstZR75-1 at IC50 of more than 150 µg/ml. An ethanol crude extract of F. cajanderi showed antimicrobial activity against three gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtillis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes) and one gram-negative strain(Pseudomonas aeruginosa) at a concentration of 1 mg/ml. Three ethanol crude extracts of mushroom F. cajanderi, P. everhartii and P. laevigatus showed antiinflammatory activity in THP-1 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide at concentrations of 31.25μg/ml, 7.81μg/ml and 1.76μg/ml, respectively. In terms of compound elucidation, 7-methoxyindole-3-carboxylic acid methyl ester, an alkaloid compound, was isolated for the first time from P. everhartii and an ester of malonic acid of a lanostanoid type triterpene was isolated for the first time from F.cajanderi. The pure compound 7-methoxyindole-3-carboxylic acid methyl ester purchased (P) from a commercial source and extracted (E) of P. everhartii showed significant anti-inflammatory activity at concentrations of 20 µg/ml and 30 µg/ml inTHP-1 cells and at a concentration of 30 µg/ml in NCTC cells. The highest percentage of acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity was 70% at 150 μg/ml for P and E. All six genes (Ccl2, Cxcl10, Cxcl13, Tnfsf10, Il6, and Tnf-α) showed downregulation in all samples. RNA-Seq of P and E showed the cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction pathway was affected in almost all treatment samples. RT-qPCR showed that TNFα, IL6 and CCL2 were up-regulated in three samples (sample E 10μg/ml, sample E 30 μg/ml and sample P 30 μg/ml) with a 1-2 fold increase andCXCL13, CXCL10 and TNFS10 showed down-regulation with a 1-2 fold change. These findings suggest that 7-methoxyindole-3-carboxylic acid methyl ester from P.everhartii could be developed as a potential anti-inflammatory therapy in the future according to the in vitro results. The ethanol crude extract from F. cajanderi could be considered for further anti-cancer and anti-microbial study.
|Date of Award||11 Dec 2020|
- University Of Strathclyde
|Supervisor||Valerie Ferro (Supervisor) & Alexander Gray (Supervisor)|