Clean, affordable energy is essential for continued growth of the economy in a country. Almost every country's laws and policies put in place in the last decade encourage energy suppliers to incorporate large amounts of renewable generation (wind and solar). This has changed the traditional mix of "fuels" used for energy generation. Integrating these resources into a reliable and affordable power system will require an unprecedented level of cooperative action within the electric industry, related utilities and the state. Power grid has existing flexibility in the system to cost-effectively integrate wind resources but, as operated today, more can be done. Integration involves managing the variability (the range of expected electricity generation output) and uncertainty (when and how much that generation will change during the day) of energy resources. Wind is one kind of free energy and this "must-take" wind power generation is integrated into the system operation. In this thesis, the impacts on the combined conventional generators, the transmission lines and the operation costs will be examined under different system operation conditions (constrained and unconstrained) with increasing wind power penetration. The firm scheduled bilateral contract from the conventional generation can cause transmission congestion and free wind power cannot be integrated into the power system operation sufficiently. This thesis proposes a combined pool/bilateral trade model to cooperate with wind power output fluctuations to increase the utilisation of wind farm which are currently constrained by the transmission networks. The one-step optimal power flow model dispatches the pool in combination with the curtailed part of fixed bilateral contracts from conventional generators. The aim is integrating maximum wind energy in the power system while minimizing costs. A dynamic wind turbine model is used to identify the impacts of integrating wind power into system operation; the Weibull Distribution Function is used to analyze the problem of wind distribution; and the Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) method is used to simulate the output of wind power generation. The proposed combined pool/bilateral trade model is applied to the modified IEEE-9 bus system for verification and validation. Following this, the analysis on IEEE-30 bus system is the comparison studies with the proposed one-step combined pool/bilateral trade model under different bidding prices. Two case studies with different market strategies through the proposed method are introduced, with different volume values of the firm bilateral contracts and the different payments for the curtailment bids. The simulation results show the relative level of pool versus bilateral trading and these influences on the performance in terms of individual power generation levels and costs. The well-proven software tools MATLAB and MATPOWER support the study.
|Date of Award||4 Sep 2015|
- University Of Strathclyde
|Supervisor||Kwok Lo (Supervisor) & Ivana Kockar (Supervisor)|